The fetishization of native-speaker status

Recently I was reading an article on the dynamics of language choice, use, and (perceived) ownership between Irish-language majors (i.e. university students) born in the Gaeltacht, hence presumed or actual native speakers, and those not, hence ‘learners’.[1] It’s a fascinating article and well worth a read, and it caused me to reflect somewhat on the way ‘native speaker’-status is fetishized among the language communities I engage in.

Before I get into that though, I want to bring in a set of distinctions mentioned in the article, but formulated by Ó Giollagáin.[2] This is a more nuanced typology of speakers, which I present here though perhaps not entirely accurate to the source:

Native speaker: a fluent speaker who acquired the language from infancy in a familial/community setting.

Neo-native speaker: a fluent speaker who acquired the language from infancy from parents who are co-speakers but not native speakers. (e.g. the parents learnt the language and then used it together in the home.

Semi-speaker: a speaker who received some degree of bi- or multi-lingual input in the family context, as from one parent speaking fluently and productively, and where the semi-speaker emerges with a range of ability, e.g. from passive bilingualism, through to competent speaker ability.

Second Language speaker (L2 speaker): someone who learnt the language as an L2, not from infancy, but speakers it with a high degree of competency. (e.g. a CEFR C2 speaker)

Learner: someone who is not a highly competent speaker of the language, but is somewhere along the learning trajectory. (e.g. a CEFR A1-B2 speaker)


I think that’s an incredibly helpful typology which avoids the very simplistic dichotomy of native vs non-native, even the trichotomy of native / non-native fluent / learner, which is often what I see people employ. Though even Ó Giollagáin’s typology could be nuanced further. These are singular categories and one really needs to reckon with multi-faceted continuums.

One of the things that O’Rourke’s article does well is that in the introduction its literature review points to a good body of material that problematises the idea of ‘native speaker’ as a clear, monolithic entity. That is also an important thing to do.

So, all this by way of introduction today. My own thoughts got more of a kick start when I heard someone refer to a very prominent contemporary Gàidhlig singer, and fluent speaker as, ‘oh, she’s just a learner’, echoing a comment from this person’s own language teacher.

People, I find, generally fetishize native speakers. They are the ideal representation of an L speaker, whose language is considered pure, uncriticisable, inerrant, and more valuable. This happens across languages. It effects, for instance, hiring practices. A native English speaker, in many places, will be a preferred candidate than a non-native fluent speaker, even when the former has no teaching skills or experience, and the latter is a trained language educator. Despite the reality that a fluent L2 speaker has the experience of learning the language as an L2 like their students will, their status as speaker is often denigrated.

Indeed, although ultimate levels of language attainment for an L2 speaker may be indistinguishable from a native speaker, the simple knowledge that someone is a non-native tends to mean, that that person will always be perceived as an inferior speaker, even when no difference in speech can be detected. It means their errors are more likely to be pointed out, than when a native speaker ‘misspeaks’. It means they will continue to be compared against native speaker speech as a benchmark, and the highest compliment they can receive is ‘oh, they speak as good as a native’.

One even finds this kind of fetishization among language communities without native speakers. I am a participant in the micro-cultures of active Latin speakers, and active Ancient-Greek speakers. There are no native speakers of these languages. There are some highly competent speakers of these languages. Those speakers tend to be lionised for their ability. Linguistic competence is treated as a status feature, and the perceived difficulty of learning to speak those languages probably heightens that. While it may be impossible to avoid language proficiency as a status feature, when language proficiency becomes a status competition, and speakers compete to assert their status via proficiency displays, this is deeply problematic for both communication, and for the language acquisition process.

Moreover the idealisation of what a native speaker of Latin might be like, the dream of creating neo-native speakers, and the fetishization of that as an ideal speaker, continues to deeply plague a community that is at heart not dedicated to Latin language revitalisation (e.g. the aim of Latin speakers is rarely, if ever, to create a new living language community, like Hebrew did, and see it evolve. If contemporary Latin evolved it would become a new Romance language, defeating the reason many people learn Latin in the first place – lingusitic continuity with a 2700 year-old language community).

While I personally think we will never jettison the idea or ideal of native speakers, I think a growing linguistic meta-awareness of the complexity and complication of the term, and its role as an ideal, can serve to mitigate its sociolinguistic effects, especially the deleterious ones. Replacing the idealisation of native speech with competent speech broadens the base of language content that is ‘worth’ consumption. It jettisons the idea of ‘authentic’ content as only that produced by native speakers for native speakers. It recognises that linguistic competence is not a product of birth, but of acquisition, whether as an L1 or L2. At the same time, an awareness of the ways in which learners, and competent speakers, native or not, perceive and use linguistic competence as a value holder for status, may allow for self-regulation of communicative exchanges to discourage language as performance and competition. On the proficient side, to recognise that one doesn’t need to demonstrate and prove one’s own proficiency as a power-play to others; on the less-proficient side, to dismiss (and dare I say, ignore and sideline) speakers whose communicative acts serve primarily to assert their own dominance.

[1] Bernadette O’Rourke, ‘Whose Language Is It? Struggles for Language Ownership in an Irish Language Classroom’, Journal of Language, Identity & Education 10:5 (201): 327-345

[2] C. Ó Giollagáin ‘Scagadh ar rannúcainteoirí comhaimseartha Gaeltachta: gnéithe d’antraipeolaíocht teangeolaíochta phobal Ráth Chairn.’ Irish Journal of Anthropology, 6 (2002): 25–56.

Last week to sign up for courses starting Februrary

I just wanted to take this chance to remind you that if you were thinking of joining one of my online video-conference classes, they are starting next week. I’m particularly pleased to say that the following courses will be running:

Greek 101 : Introductory Greek

Latin 101 : Introductory Latin

Greek 212 : Greek Patristics

Latin 211: Theological Latin through the Ages (0-500)

If you have any questions about these, please get in touch.



Necantes in Nomine

I did a Latin version of Rage against the Machine’s Killing in the Name of

Here’s an audio: (apologies for not having vocals as good as Zach’s)

Here’s my lyrics:

necantes in nomine

qui sunt in vigilibus… cruces iidem incendunt
qui sunt in vigilibus… cruces iidem incendunt
qui sunt in vigilibus… cruces iidem incendunt
qui sunt in vigilibus… cruces iidem incendunt

necantes in nomine
necantes in nomine

iam tu facis quod iubent
iam tu facis quod iubent
iam tu facis quod iubent
iam tu facis quod iubent
etiam tu facis quod iubent
etiam tu facis quod iubent
etiam tu facis quod iubent
etiam tu facis quod iubent
etiam tu facis quod iubent
etiam tu facis quod iubent
iam autem facis quod iubent te
uel iam facis quob iubent te!

eos necari approbator
insigni gerendo, albi electi
necatos esse approbatis
insigni gerendo, albi electi
eos necari approbator
insigni gerendo, albi electi
necatos esse approbatis
insigni gerendo, albi electi

qui sunt in vigilibus… cruces iidem incendunt
qui sunt in vigilibus… cruces iidem incendunt
qui sunt in vigilibus… cruces iidem incendunt
qui sunt in vigilibus… cruces iidem incendunt


necantes in nomine
necantes in nomine

iam tu facis quod iubent
iam tu facis quod iubent
iam tu facis quod iubent
iam tu facis quod iubent

etiam facis quod iubent 

(sub manu es nunc) etiam tu facis quod iubent
(sub manu es nunc) etiam tu facis quod iubent
(sub manu es nunc) etiam tu facis quod iubent
(sub manu es nunc) etiam tu facis quod iubent
(sub manu es nunc) etiam tu facis quod iubent
(sub manu es nunc) etiam tu facis quod iubent
(sub manu es nunc) etiam tu facis quod iubent

 eos necari approbator
insigni gerendo, albi electi
necatos esse approbatis
insigni gerendo, albi electi
eos necari approbator

insigni gerendo, albi electi
necatos esse approbatis
insigni gerendo, albi electi


futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam
futuere, quod iubes non faciam


MALS, some reflections

MALS (the Macquarie Ancient Languages School) has been running for almost 40 years now, a 1 (at times 2) week intensive school offering, initially Ancient Greek, but now and for some time a range of ancient languages. It typically runs both a summer and winter course.

I first attended MALS over 15 years ago, I’d say. There was a blessed period in which Scottish Gaelic was offered, and it was my first exposure to Gàidhlig in a live, conversational mode. I learnt a lot from those experiences. I also, over the years, took a number of Greek courses here.

Since 2015 I’ve been tutoring with MALS, taking Intermediate/Advanced Biblical/Patristic Greek. In that time I’ve had the pleasure of teaching a considerable range of texts not normally available to students of Greek, due to the lack of helps. Those have included : the Martyrdom of Polycarp, the Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicity (in its Greek version), selections of Josephus, the Acts of Paul and Thecla, the gnostic Infancy Gospel of Thomas, Gregory Nazianzus’ Oration 29, Gregory of Nyssa on the Divinity of the Son and the Spirit , the Shepherd of Hermas, Melito’s On Pascha, and this week Esther and selections from Chrysostom’s Letters to Olympias.

That’s a considerable range of texts! I had to go through my archives to confirm what we’d read. It’s been a real pleasure to work through these with students, though my classes are always incredibly small. My section often fails to meet minimum numbers and runs purely by the goodwill of the organisers.

Why is it that, given that this is perhaps the only opportunity, in Australia, to read non-New Testament and non-classical texts, outside pursuing a higher research degree, that there are so few students? I don’t know, to be honest. Of course, every individuals circumstances are different, but there are indeed few opportunities to read and study these kinds of texts, in Greek, unless your Greek is already so excellent as to not need help.

I hope that MALS continues to grow and run in strength for many years to come. Greek aside, it is also one of the few places one can learn other, less commonly taught, ancient languages.


How movable is movable nu?

A question arose from someone about while reading LGPSI, about the distribution between ἐστί and ἐστί(ν), specifically they noted that I sometimes (perhaps more frequently than expected), violated the general rule that movable nu appears before a subsequent vowel. Now, I happen to know intuitively that that rule is by no means hard and fast, but since the question was raised, I was intrigued enough to ask, how much is that rule breached rather than followed. I was also motivated by the desire to make sure that LGPSI doesn’t merely reflect grammars, but reflects usage patterns.

So, as with all such useful questions, I knew who could not only probably tell me, but also help me understand the process of how to answer such questions, James Tauber. He helpfully shared with me snippets of his own code that could be brought to bear, and then ran the data himself on the SBLGNT.

Now, the SBLGNT is a modern edited text, so the results it provides probably say something more about the editor, than they necessarily do about ancient texts. That suggests to me that there’s good room to ask the same kinds of questions at a manuscript level, and also at broader corpus levels.

Looking at strings of characters and where movable nu, and movable sigma (e.g. οὕτως vs οὕτω) occur, yields some of the following data.
Of 162 instances of words that could end with either movable nu or sigma but do not (e.g. they are movables that end with a vowel), they are followed by a word starting with a vowel only twice only twice, and those are Luke 16.16: μέχρι Ἰωάννου, and Acts 1.15 εἴκοσι)· Ἄνδρες.

Of 5081 numbers of movable nus that do occur, 1480 occur before a vowel, 749 before a vowel with rough breathing, with no intervening punctuation. The presence of a subsequent vowel appears to be no barrier to the presence of a movable nu. Whereas the absence of a movable nu and/or sigma does appear to require a consonant-initial to follow. (Numbers exist too for when punctuation intervenes, which doesn’t contradict the overall pattern).

Similarly, perhaps, a movable sigma occurs 188 instances in which there is no following punctuation, 107 times of which have a following consonant – suggesting that like movable nu, a subsequent consonant does not deter a movable sigma.

But, all that said, ἐστι (whether ἐστί or ἔστι), occurs but 6 times in the SBLGNT, which may suggest something. Does it suggest more about Holmes’ editing of the SBLGNT, or about movable nu usage in the New Testament corpus? The only way to answer that would be more data analysis.

For now, and for my own purposes, I’ll be less worried about ἐστίν before consonants, and perhaps a little more conscious to use ἐστί only before consonants…

Chrysostom, the twofold nativity

An excerpt from Homily II in Matthaeum (PG 57)

∆ιὰ τοῦτο διπλῆ γέγονεν ἡ γέννησις, καὶ ἐοικυῖα ἡμῖν, καὶ ὑπερβαίνουσα τὴν ἡμετέραν. Τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἐκ γυναικὸς γεννηθῆναι ἡμῖν συνέβαινε· τὸ δὲ μὴ ἐξ αἵματος, μηδὲ ἐκ θελήματος σαρκὸς ἢ ἀνδρὸς, ἀλλ’ ἐκ Πνεύματος ἁγίου, τὴν ὑπερβαίνουσαν ἡμᾶς καὶ τὴν μέλλουσαν προανεφώνει γέννησιν, ἣν ἡμῖν ἔμελλεν ἐκ Πνεύματος χαρίζεσθαι. Καὶ πάντα δὲ τὰ ἄλλα τοιαῦτα ἦν. Καὶ γὰρ τὸ λουτρὸν τοιοῦτον· εἶχε γάρ τι τοῦ παλαιοῦ, εἶχέ τι καὶ τοῦ καινοῦ. Τὸ μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τοῦ προφήτου βαπτισθῆναι, τὸ παλαιὸν ἐδείκνυ· τὸ δὲ Πνεῦμα κατελθεῖν, τὸ νέον ὑπέγραψε. Καὶ καθάπερ τις ἐν μεταιχμίῳ στὰς, δύο τινῶν ἀλλήλων διεστηκότων, ἀμφοτέρας ἁπλώσας τὰς χεῖρας ἑκατέρωθεν λαβὼν συνάψειεν· οὕτω καὶ αὐτὸς ἐποίησε, τὴν παλαιὰν τῇ καινῇ συνάπτων, τὴν θείαν φύσιν τῇ ἀνθρωπίνῃ, τὰ αὑτοῦ τοῖς ἡμετέροις.


Therefore the nativity is rendered twofold, both like unto us and surpassing ours. For being born of a woman conforms to our birth, but not by blood, nor the will of flesh nor man, but by the holy Spirit, manifests in advance the birth to come, that surpasses us, which he was about to bestow to use by the Spirit. And everything else was like this too. For the washing is of this sort: for it held something of the old, and something also of the new. For his being baptized by the prophet, displayed the old; the Spirit descending traced out the new. And just as if someone standing in the interval, between two other people standing apart, stretching out and taking the hands of both, unites them, thus also he himself, conjoining the old with the new, made the divine nature join with the human one, his with ours.

Greek question and answer patterns

I’ve been trying to do some work to write up the kinds of things I aim to do in live classes, which is mostly to develop questions in Greek (or insert appropriate language here) about the text, as we go. I’ve adapted a lot from the TPRS method of circling, and here below I demonstrate with a very small portion of text from the Athenaze textbook, how you can frame a whole range of questions even on the simplest material. The questions are arranged in ‘levels’ which are somewhat arbitrary, but give something of a schema to work up from and to.


ὁ Δικαιόπολις Ἀθηναῖός ἐστιν. οἰκεῖ δὲ ὁ Δικαιόπολις οὐκ ἐν ταῖς Ἀθήναις ἀλλὰ ἐν τοῖς ἀγροῖς· αὐτουργὸς γάρ ἐστιν. γεωργεῖ οὖν τὸν κλῆρον καὶ πονεῖ ἐν τοῖς ἀγροῖς. χαλεπὸς δέ ἐστιν ὁ βίος· ὁ γὰρ κλῆρός ἐστι μῑκρός, μακρὸς δὲ ὁ πόνος.

Questions (with some answers)
Level 1 (Yes/No)

ἆρα Ἀθηναῖός ἐστιν ὁ Δικαιόπολις;    ναί, Ἀθηναῖός ἐστιν ὁ Δικαιόπολις.

ἆρα οἰκεῖ ὁ Δικαιόπολις ἐν τοῖς ἀγροῖς;   ναί, ὁ Δικαιόπολις ἐν τοῖς ἀγροῖς οἰκεῖ.

Level 2: Either/Or

Q: πότερον Ἀθηναῖος ἢ Λακεδαιμόνιός ἐστιν ὁ Δικαιόπολις;

A: ὁ Δικαιόπολις ἐστιν Ἀθηναῖος. οὐκ ἔστιν Λακεδαιμόνιος.

Level 2b: Leading yes/no questions

Q: μὴ Λακεδομόνιος ὁ Δικαιόπολις;

A: οὐ Λακεδομόνιος ὁ Δικαιόπολις, ἀλλὰ Ἀθηναῖός ἐστιν.

Level 3: Substitution with who/what/where/when/why

τίς ἐστιν Ἀθηναῖος;   ὁ Δικαιόπολίς ἐστιν Ἀθηναῖος.

τίς ἐστιν ἡ πόλις τῷ Δικαοπόλιδι;   Ἀθηναῖός ἐστιν ὁ Δικαιόπολις.

τί ἐστιν ὁ Δικαιόπολις;    αὐτουργός ἐστιν. ἄνθρωπός ἐστιν. Ἀθηναῖός ἐστιν. ὁ Δικαιόπολίς ἐστιν αὐτουργός τε καὶ Ἀθηναῖός.

τίνα γεωργεῖ ὁ Δικαιόπολις;     τὸν κλῆρον γεωργεῖ.

τίς ἐστιν μικρός;               ὁ κλῆρός ἐστιν μικρός.

τίς ἐστιν μακρός;             μακρός ἐστιν ὁ πόνος.

ποῦ οἰκεῖ ὁ Δικαιόπολις;            ἐν τοῖς ἀγροῖς οἰκεῖ.

τί ἔχει ὁ Δικαιόπολις;      κλῆρον ἔχει.

τί ποιεῖ ὁ Δικαιόπολις;    τὸν κλῆρον γεωργεῖ; πονεῖ ἐν τοῖς ἀγροῖς.

ποῖός ἐστιν ὁ βίος;          χαλεπός ὁ βίος.

ποῖός ἐστιν ὁ κλῆρος;     μικρός ἐστιν.

Level 4: Asking for details not in the reading

ἆρα ἐστιν ὁ Δικαιόπολις νεανίας, ἢ οὔ;

μὴ ἦν ὁ πατὴρ τοῦ Δικαιοπόλιδος αὐτουργός;

πότερον πολίτης ὁ Δικαιόπολις ἢ δοῦλος;

τίς ἡ πατρίς ἐστι τῷ Δικαιοπόλιδι;

ὁ Δικαιόπολις μόνος οἰκεῖ ἐν τοῖς ἀγροῖς;

Level 5: Asking for student details/responses (personalisation)

ἆρα σὺ εἶ Ἀθηναῖος, ἢ οὐ;

ἆρα σὺ εἶ αὐτοργός;

πότερον Ἀθηναῖος εἶ ἢ οὔ;

μὴ γεωργεῖς;

οὐ ἔχεις κλῆρόν τινα;

τίς ἡ πατρὶς σοι;

οἰκεῖς ἐν τοῖς ἀγροῖς; ἐν τῇ πόλει; ποῦ οἰκεῖς;

(the same again, but in the 3rd person, in 2nd plural, in 3rd plural, with students, with known and unknown responses.)

Level 6: Conditionals

εἰ Ἀθηναῖος ἐστιν ὁ Δικαιόπολις, τίς ἡ πατρίς αὐτῷ;

εἰ Λακεδομόνιος ἦν ὁ Δικαιόπολις, ποῦ ἂν ᾤκει;

(I would generally start with conditionals closely tied to the text. But you can make them further and removed.

There are other things you can do: use of synonymous words, phrases, structures. Switching around constructions (active <> middle), etc etc. But this is just a sample.

Courses for 2020: Now available

After some consultation, I’ve finalised a list of courses for 2020. They are now available on the Online Courses page. Each of these courses will have carry on courses across 2020, for four terms of 10 weeks each. (e.g. Greek 101, 102, 103, 104 carry you through an entire introductory Greek sequence)

In short, I am offering introductory and intermediate classes in Latin and Greek, conducted almost entirely in the target language, and covering a broad range of texts. If you have any questions about the suitability of a course, or details about enrolment or course delivery, please get in touch with me about it and I’ll be happy to address any questions or concerns. All my courses run off US Eastern time, so you will need to adjust as appropriate for your own time zones. Courses start the first week of February and will run in 10 week blocks, 4 times across the year.


(all times US eastern, starting Feb 2nd)


7pm   Greek 101: Introductory Greek 1
8pm   Latin 201 Readings in Classical Latin: Caesar, De Bello Gallico
9pm   Greek 201 Readings in Classical Greek: Lysias 1


6pm   Latin 251 Latin Composition and Translation studies
7pm   Latin 101 Introductory Latin 1
8pm   Greek 221 Biblical Greek 1: Esther
9pm   Greek 251 Greek Composition and Translation studies 1


7pm   Latin 211 Theological Latin through the Ages 1 (0-500)
8pm   Greek 212 Greek Patristics 1

Audit Options

Interested in a particular class but not able to make the scheduled live interactions? This year I’ll be introducing an audit-option. You will gain all access to class materials and extra-class support, as well as video recordings of the class sessions. However, if I don’t have enough interest in an actual class, I cannot provide an audit option. Moreover, I strongly advise class participation if possible.

Individual Tutoring

I’ll be continuing to offer individualised tutoring in Greek and Latin. This is ideal if (a) you want personalised instruction, (b) you want to work on something not offered in a class. We can tailor our work together to meet your needs. It can range the spectrum from fully communicative to traditional grammar/translation. I’m happy to work on any text in Ancient Greek (up to the Byzantine period) or Latin.

Custom Pair or small group Tutoring

Individual tutoring isn’t for everyone, I know. But perhaps the classes I’m running aren’t your thing. If you’ve got a friend or two, and want to do some customised tutoring but in a small group or pair, I’m very open to this format. Tutoring work in a pair can work exceptionally well by introducing a third person to interact with, as well as cutting the price significantly on your end.

The Steadman Challenge Reading Group

I’m full of initiatives at the moment. The idea for this one came from a friend, to be honest. “What if you read all the Geoffrey Steadman editions of Greek texts??” That’s some solid Greek reading there in a very help format. That was the idea, and now the reality: we started a google group for those interested in working through 18 texts in the Steadman edition (17 volumes, with two texts in one) over 18 months. In December we’re reading Crito, followed by Lysias 1 in January. Then it’s on to a full volume (of various lengths a month) a month.

I realised that I had shared this on twitter, but there are perhaps others who would like to join us. The google group/email list is mostly for support, a little bit for asking questions on difficulties. So it’s more of a loose coalition of reading-together, but it will do your Greek a world of good.

The Intermediate Koine problem

You may have heard of ‘the third year problem’. It’s the problem of getting through two years of Latin, through ‘all the grammar’, and working out what to teach school students in order to transition them to ‘genuine’ Latin. It’s not really that simple a problem either, because getting from a grammar background to genuine unadapted texts as taught in upper high school is a tremendously difficult problem.

Anyway, there’s a similar problem that besets most students who have come out of a theological background and want to read broader Greek. Let’s call it the ‘intermediate Koine’ problem. Most seminary students these days, if they are fortunate ones, get 2 semesters of grammar, and then 1, 2, 3 or perhaps 4 ‘exegesis’ courses in which they are expected to work through a New Testament book in Greek. Which, in theory, might leave them with a 6 semester series of Greek courses, but that is definitely the upper end. (well, I must confess, I did 1 year of grammar, followed by 3 years of texts, so 8 courses really).

But my experience of moving into Patristics was… probably not very standard. I was already doing Latin, and I started taking a couple of Classical Greek classes on the side, went to some short courses, and read a lot of extra Greek. And then I tackled Chrysostom in my Masters.

I have met more than a few students interested in Patristics, or even just some broader Greek reading, who don’t know who to bridge the gap between their seminary-Greek and broader Greek literature. (Classical Greek students normally don’t have this same problem. They have other problems though, so don’t let them get too snobbish about it).

Here’s my generic advice if you’re in this situation:

  • The New Testament is relatively easy Greek. Take advantage of that and make sure you’ve read it all. And familiarity with the NT and with the LXX is going to serve you well if you do go onto the Fathers, because they are all familiar with it. It’s their Bible.
  • But most of the Fathers were educated in Greek, and they are generally writing in higher registers than the NT, and they are often imitating a more classicising style.
  • For which reason, you are well advised to spend some time working through a Classical Greek textbook. It will fill in the gaps that a NT grammar left out, broaden your vocab and exposure to Greek, and give you some more tools in the bag for difficulties.
  • At the same time, you want to start reading more broadly. The Apostolic Fathers are a very good set of texts to transition with, because they are building on the New Testament in style and vocabulary, are moderately more difficult, but much will be familiar. If you’re after something more generic to read, Xenophon or Lysias are good choices. Between those two, I prefer to recommend Lysias.
  • Ultimately, the main factor that is going to contribute to crossing the rather long intermediate plateau, is a commitment to reading more and more Greek. So don’t be afraid to go where your interests lie. Motivation to keep reading and understanding is important in the long run, to keep you in this game for the long run.

Sore Thumbs in Subcorpus vocabulary

Lately James Tauber and I have been collaborating (him doing lots of work, me coming up with new things to do) on vocabulary data.

My particular driving interest was how to structure the writing of LGPSI to introduce vocabulary, from the start, that will build students towards a strong basis for reading post-introductory texts. Instead of a pure frequency approach, LGPSI has as its broad focus providing just more and more and more exposure to the most frequent words. At some stage I hope to utilise specific lemmatisation work on LGPSI itself to improve the text’s own introduction of vocabulary, but my major focus at the moment is thinking how the larger arc of the text serves a long-term goal of Greek learners.

The subcorpus we selected deliberately aims at both the New Testament, and some post-beginner prose texts (selections from Plato, Lysias, Xenophon, Thucydides, Herodotos, and a small amount of Demosthenes and Isocrates), as the most likely ‘second contact’ for Greek learners. In this post, I want to reflect a little on ‘sore thumbs’ – when we look at the frequency data of the subcorpus as a whole, but notice a discrepancy between those sub-subcorpora. In the notes below, I’ll simply give the percentage point at which a word occurs in terms of coverage, for the subcorpus, and for the GNT.

Exhibit A:

Words common in broader Greek, but relatively absent in the New Testament.

δή (50.97%, 94.65%)

The first word that we encounter that’s relatively common in our subcorpus but not the GNT is δή. And what I’d say is that it’s emblematic of the fact that the broader and richer particle usage in Greek is not reflected in the GNT. This is one challenge for students moving from NT Koine to broader Greek – encountering and mastering a range of particles.

(see also τοίνυν, ἦ, οὐκοῦν and οὔκουν

(54.88%, 85.14%)

Using ὦ in vocative address is relatively uncommon in the GNT.

τοιοῦτος (56.28%, 80.18%)

The ‘extended’ set of qualitative and quantitative demonstrative-type adjectives are under-represented in the GNT.

ἐπεί (58.01%, 83.07%)

This one surprised me (as did a few), simply because I have become rather use to ἐπεί

οἴομαι (60.19%, 97.34%)

With only 3 NT occurrences, this is a high-frequency non-GNT word that is remarkable absent in the GNT.

βούλομαι (60.5%, 83.8%)

Similarly this one. This makes me suspect that the GNT has some systematic preferences, e.g. θέλω in place of βούλομαι. Students transitioning from NT-only Koine to broader Greek would benefit from just some advance notice on these.

οἷος (62.16%, 90.42%)

Similar to τοιοῦτος above.

ὥσπερ (62.63%, 84.15%)

For a word that I use conversationally quite a bit, I was again surprised by its infrequency. I have a hunch this is perhaps reflected in a preference for ὡς.

ὅδε (66.3%, 91.36%)

The nearest demonstrative is drastically under-represented in the GNT, probably reflecting its disuse among contemporary speakers. It would be interesting to compare this with a broader Koine corpus.

πολέμιος (66.47%, n/a)

This is the first, but not the only word, that is reasonably frequent in our subcorpus, but appears zero times in the GNT. (σφεῖς is the next most common one).

μάλιστα (67.34%, 91.41%)

Another reasonably common word (and useful conversational one!) dramatically absent in GNT.

τυγχάνω (67.42%, 91.97%)

χρή (69.94%, hapax)

Remarkable that this is a hapax in the NT (James 3:10)

ἀφικνέομαι (70.23%, hapax)

Again remarkable to me, having become used to so many people ‘arriving’ in various places. (Rom 16:19)

I could go on, to be honest. But one of the things this brings home to me is that those who learn with only NT Greek, need to have their sense of Greek ‘normed’ a bit against a broader Greek corpus. Not necessarily this corpus, but nevertheless ‘broader’ Greek. How can you have a sense of Greek usage if your only reading material is the GNT corpus?

Secondly, it sets some bench marks for my own writing. The vocabulary data James is generating lets me check my own tendencies, which very often are shaped by what I’ve been reading lately! To ask the question of, “is this word relatively common, or uncommon?” And to shape the vocabulary introduction in LGPSI around benchmarks of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 lemma.

Course Plans for 2020

In 2020 I’m looking to offer some stronger, more structured, more supported courses in Greek and Latin. Essentially I’m hoping to run some full-year options, although payment and enrolment will be segmented into four quarters. You can read more of my proposed courses below, but in very brief I plan to run:

  • A full college-first-year Greek equivalent course, bringing you to both an active competency in Greek as well as reading portions of the New Testament and some Attic material. I will be developing a stand-alone video course that will either complement live classes with me, or else be capable of taking alone.
  • A full college-first-year Latin equivalent course, taking you all the way through Familia Romana and beyond, with grammatical material in Latin, as well as additional post-FR reading and work.
  • Some ‘second-year’ type options exploring theological, patristic, and classical writings in Latin and Greek.
  • An explicit-instruction course in translation into Greek and free composition in Greek.

I’m quite open to the possibility of doing some other courses. If you think of something, just ask me, I could probably run it!
Each course will run 10 weeks, with 1hr live face-to-face video conference. Depending on the course, I expect learners to be doing another 1-4hrs of their own work each week.
Lastly, if this model works well enough, I’ll continue to expand planned offerings in 2021, to some more advanced texts and perhaps more poetry.
Classes are planned to start the week of Jan 20th 2020.
Any questions at all, feel free to email me or fill out the form at the bottom of this page.


  • When can I enroll?    Times and enrollment information will be available in December
  • What will the costs be?    They are yet to be finalised, but I expect most of the 10-week courses to be around USD$200

Here’s a longer description of what I’m planning:

Greek 101-104 Introductory Greek

This will be a full year course that takes students through 40 chapters of LGPSI, as well as supplementary material. It presumes no prior knowledge of Greek at all. You’ll be taught a “broad Koine” Greek that includes Attic elements. Classes will be conducted 95% in Greek. The course (starting with 101) assumes no prior knowledge of Greek.

Latin 101-104 Introductory Latin

This will be a full year course that takes students through all of Familia Romana and beyond. We’ll read all of Hans Ørberg’s Familia Romana, as well as additional reading and listening work. You’ll complete regular assignments in writing. Classes will be conducted 95% in Latin. The course assumes no prior knowledge of Latin.

Latin 201-204 Ørberg classes

In these classes we’ll tackle sections from some of the supplementary readers developed by Hans Ørberg, transitioning to lightly adapted version of classical texts.

  • 201        Caesar’s De Bello Gallico
  • 202        Plautus’ Amphitryo
  • 203        Vergil’s Aeneid (1, 4)
  • 204        Roma Aeterna (starting in ch 41)

These are designed to be spoken/conversational reading and discussion classes working with the text. Depending on the speed of the group, we’ll read seelections and assign other portions for idividual coverage.

Greek 201-204 Greek Classics

In these classes we’ll tackle traditional “post-beginner” texts in ancient Greek, reading and discussing the text through Greek conversation and discussion.

  • 201        Lysias 1
  • 202        Xenophon Anabasis 1
  • 203        Plato’s Apology
  • 204        Thucydides Peloponnesian War, book 4

Latin 211-214  Theological Latin through the Ages:

A sequence of 4 units in which we’ll examine a selection of writings from 4 different epochs: 0-500, 500-1000, 1000-1500, 1500-2000. Each course is independent but sequenced. The classes will be conducted in a mixed Latin/English format, depending on the competency of participants, and moving towards greater Latin discussion of Latin.

Greek 211-214  Greek Patristics

A sequence of 4 units in which we’ll examine selections of Greek patristic writings. Unlike the Theological Latin subjects, all four courses will stay within the patristic period, looking at Greek theological writings of the first 700 years, in a mixed Greek/English conversational format.

Greek 221-224 Biblical Greek

A sequence of 4 units in which we’ll read and discuss, in Greek, various biblical texts. These courses will alternate each term between an Old Testament (LXX) book and a New Testament one.

221        Esther

Latin 221 Augustine: Confessions

In this class, and any subsequent ones presuming there is interest, we’ll read and discuss our way through Augustine’s Confessions, in Latin.

Greek 251 Greek Translation and Composition studies

This is a course focused on explicit learning of grammatical material. We’ll work with an array of traditional so-called “prose composition” books to gain an explicit/externalised grasp on Greek grammar and apply it to rendering English sentences into Greek.

Parallel to this, we’ll work on rendering a range of English texts into Greek, as well as free composition.

This course is designed for those with a fair degree of Greek under the belts, who are interested in becoming well-equipped in translating into Greek or else writing Greek composition freely. Our face to face hour will take the format of a seminar, discussing various grammatical elements, translation challenges, and translation theory. There will be a reasonable amount of ‘homework’ expected of participants to get the full value of this course.

Audit Options

Interested in a particular class but not able to make the scheduled live interactions? This year I’ll be introducing an audit-option. You will gain all access to class materials and extra-class support, as well as video recordings of the class sessions. However, if I don’t have enough interest in an actual class, I cannot provide an audit option. Moreover, I strongly advise class participation if possible.

Individual Tutoring

I’ll be continuing to offer individualised tutoring in Greek and Latin. This is ideal if (a) you want personalised instruction, (b) you want to work on something not offered in a class. We can tailor our work together to meet your needs. It can range the spectrum from fully communicative to traditional grammar/translation. I’m happy to work on any text in Ancient Greek (up to the Byzantine period) or Latin.

Custom Pair or small group Tutoring

Individual tutoring isn’t for everyone, I know. But perhaps the classes I’m running aren’t your thing. If you’ve got a friend or two, and want to do some customised tutoring but in a small group or pair, I’m very open to this format. Tutoring work in a pair can work exceptionally well by introducing a third person to interact with, as well as cutting the price significantly on your end.


Further Enquiries

What’s coming up for LGPSI…

If you’ve been over to the main LGPSI interface lately, you’ll see it’s currently at chapter 12. Actually I have written up to chapter 16, but with a little delay in posting some of those until I’ve had at least an initial chance to revise and review.

My plan this year is to get to at least chapter 20. But I’m also at a point where I need to pause and assess a few things. It’s not too difficult for me to bang out a chapter of relatively simple Greek and move the story along, but on any given chapter I need to be thinking about: what vocab is being introduced and how, what structures are being introduced and how, and what on earth is happening in the story.

So, I have a bit of planning work to do. Particularly I have two tasks on my plate that I want to get somewhat sorted at least before moving forwards.

The first is I need a better awareness of overall vocabulary mapping. In particular, LGPSI volume 1 has as its end point a core vocabulary that builds towards students being set-up to move on to the New Testament, Lysias, Plato, Xenophon, and Herodotus. I’m not promising that the transition will be seamless, but that’s the kind of core vocabulary I’m interested in baking into LGPSI so learners get to the end with a good deal of vocabulary exposure.

The second is I need a better awareness of grammar features. In a truly acquisition driven model, you wouldn’t worry so much about sequencing grammar, provided it’s comprehensible. That is… difficult with a static text. What I’d like to do is have a good roadmap for myself in the first instance, so I can see at a glance what’s been introduced, where, and what needs to be held off, restricted, or repeated, reinforced.

So those two things are on my to-do list, before I try to move too far forwards.


And, if you’re wondering what I mean by ‘volume 1’, well. Essentially I envisage that there will be a first/core LGPSI series of chapters (aka ‘book’) of 50 chapters. Or so. Maybe more, maybe less. But because I think of this as a really open-ended venture, it leaves lots of space for (i) sequels, (ii) parallel stories/episodes, (iii) expansions of particular parts, (iv) prequels? (v) new stories in different time periods, (vi) sequel volumes that work towards particular authors. All that is big picture and long term stuff, but I like to dream big and lay a wide foundation.

Thanks to everyone who’s reading/using/talking about/generally supporting LGPSI. It means a lot to me and I’m excited to see this project going forward.

NaNoWriMo for Latin and Greek

So, I had this idea, and floated it on Twitter, and now it’s time to make it real.

What if we adapted NaNoWriMo for penning original Latin and Ancient Greek texts?

When I mentioned this idea, a couple of people said they had done so in the past, and more than a few interested some interest, so let’s make it happen.

Here are my thoughts:

  • Let’s lower our goals. NaNoWriMo typically has its goal as 50,000 words towards a new novel. Not many of us are going to be able to sustain that kind of output in a classical language
  • Let’s tier our efforts. What if you aimed to write a 3000, 6000, 9000 word original fiction piece in Latin or Greek? That would be amazing.
  • Let’s combine our efforts. NaNoWriMo has lots of support for writers, but writing Latin or Greek is going to be its own version of tough. So if you are interested in joining a small, time-limited group for writing original Latin/Greek fiction, send me an email: and let me know. By doing so you are agreeing to sharing your email with everyone else in our writing group.

I’d encourage you to check out the NaNoWriMo preparation page here:

And get started on some ‘pre-November’ activities. Let’s increase the quantity of contemporary Latin and new-ancient-Greek.

Reflections on Online Teaching from 2019

Even though it’s only… October, I’m at a point of reflecting on the year gone past. This year I took the initiative to move from only doing individual tutoring, to offering online classes. I’d experienced enough of them myself, knew what other people and groups were doing, and had grown in my competence and confidence in speaking Greek and Latin that I was ready to take that step.

For the most part, it’s gone quite well. It’s opened up possibilities in terms of groups and teaching that I simply didn’t have before, as well as made some spoken Latin/Greek available to people who wouldn’t otherwise have had the financial ability.

It has also not been without significant challenges. Perhaps most difficult is the tension between communicative practices, and mediated teaching. Across the higher education sector there has been an ongoing, and mostly irreversible, shift to flexible delivery options – recorded lectures, online materials, asynchronous content delivery. This occurs in almost every context, except where students need to be explicitly there in person to learn to do something. And even then, students who have the benefit of distance/flexible options in other areas, will tend to pursue those options even for things that they might benefit from being in-person for. In short, it’s very hard to get students to turn up to things.

And, when we talk about language education, it is true that we now live in an age where technology has made possible communicative teaching in a way that was simply never possible before. A very large portion of my own education in Latin, Greek, and Gaelic as living spoken languages has taken place through online voice/video/text chats and courses.

However… there remains a big caveat. And the more I have shifted to a position of Communicative Language teaching based on Comprehensible Input in communicatively-embedded contexts, the greater the need for actual interaction between human beings. Yes, you can do reading/listening work, but live actual communication seems to me essential to optimally develop real-time competency in a language.

This works best, in my experience, in a physical shared space. There’s a whole raft of things I can do when meeting and dealing with people that are constrained, or impossible, online. Even online video chats limit me to working with a small class of people, and without sharing realia to interact with. Also, I’ve found that people’s ability (and mind) to stay focused and engaged on a video chat is rather limited compared to live shared-space communication.

This seems rather intractable – you can’t upscale to teach 20 students in a class, 50, 100, 200, whatever, without replicating the conversational dimensions of the 3-5 person group. And that is time and labour intensive.

Anyway, to cycle back around, what this year has taught me, is that this is worth it. Perhaps not entirely financially – it’s honestly hard to generate enough income from online teaching. For a variety of reasons – it’s a niche market; nonetheless it’s a competitive market; a key demographic (college aged students) don’t have the funds to pursue non-college education options (e.g. there’s no scholarships at SeumasU); preparation time is largely unfunded; there’s a limit to how much I can teach (4hrs straight is pretty much my limit on any given day, though it’s not common that I have that much work).

But it’s worth it, because seeing students actually acquire language, and see/hear/feel Latin and Greek as living languages, and process language in real time, and realise, “hey, I can do this”, is amazing. I get a thrill out of spending 60 minutes talking 95-100% in the target language, at a level that students can understand, and seeing them develop over time. And bringing Latin and Greek alive, for learners who wouldn’t have this experience anywhere else, is a privilege I’m honoured and delighted to be involved in.

Musings on Post-Vocational Life

Just because you have gifts doesn’t mean you’ll get to use them. I’ve taught this many times. But it’s not an easy lesson to learn. I remember clearly one particularly member of a church, saying to me after a service, that he wasn’t sure how well I’d go if I wasn’t in ministry, dealing with the challenge of being a Christian when it wasn’t part of my profession.


Well, here I am, post-vocationally employed. After seminary I spent 2.5 years in ministry positions, and 3 years overseas in academic-ministry. And then 3 more years completing a PhD which was mostly conceived as an extension and a stepping stone to further academic ministry.

These days? You know, technically I have 2 employers who are seminaries. One a reformed protestant one, the other an Orthodox college. But I don’t conceive of my self as in a vocational ministry. I think for 2 reasons:

Firstly, I very much grew up in a theological tradition that was practically a-vocational. No one had a ‘call’ to lifelong ministry, and our ordination practices reflected that – people were ordained to positions, and if you didn’t have a position, they wouldn’t ordain you (though you certainly weren’t stripped of ordination if you subsequently didn’t have a position). So for me, ordained ministry was about taking up ordained ministry positions, and signing on to a party platform. Which I never did.

Secondly, the employment dynamics of ministry, including the positions I always held, were never “you are being paid to do X”, but rather “you are being given a stipend to set you apart to do X, rather than having to do paid employment”. I think that’s a right conception of how to pay Christian ministry staff – you are enabling them to be set apart from other forms of employment to focus on gospel ministry.

As much as I care about the students in my care, and approach my jobs with diligence and a sense of stewardship, and as much as the people I liaise with (work with is probably too strong an expression) are genuine and caring, the work I now do is the academic equivalent of day-labouring. You turn up to the agora in the morning and hopefully someone picks you up for the day. And if they’re honest, they pay you at the end of the day. Except in my case it’s a digital agora, and the contracts run for 3.5 months. But it’s the same principle. And I’m mostly disposable – sure, I’m unique, but the role I play is designed to be interchangeable. If I didn’t take a course, someone else would. That’s what casualisation does to our academies (and our seminaries)

So I don’t think of myself as ‘in the ministry’ in particular. Even though much of the labour I do is ministry oriented. But it’s not because I’m a-vocational. It’s because I’m a-vocationally paid. And that has involved a very long process of identity shift. As much as we talk about not being defined by your work, it very much was the case that I ‘was’ a minister, and I ‘was’ an overseas ministry worker, and now I’m not. And I’m 100% sure that some of my former colleagues wonder why I’m not “in” ministry anymore.

I was an above average preacher, but I don’t preach much these days. I was, and could be, a pretty fine academic teacher and researcher, but I don’t have the means to exercise those gifts much either. Having abilities is no guarantee, let alone right, that you’ll get to use them. Our world and our histories are full of people who never ‘developed their potential’. The two or so years, getting closer to 3 now I suppose, have been a slow process of grief. I was encouraged, more than once, to pursue further studies, to get into patristics, and I can honestly never remember a conversation that warned me there were no jobs at the end of this pipeline. That awareness came along the way, from peers and from social media, not from advisors. And the grief comes from letting go of a dream that is less and less tangible. I wasn’t a great job candidate at the end of my PhD, and I’m essentially worse off now, 3 years on, then I was then. My PhD is old news, and unpublished, my referees out of date, and my track record full of lots of non-research things. I’ve come to terms with that, for the most part.

So, here I am, post-vocational, perhaps. Though, the work that I do now, with languages, I still very much conceptualise as a vocation of a sort. There aren’t that many people doing what I’m doing with language. In Latin, sure, a sizeable minority. In Greek, very few. I’m not the best at this, either, but I keep drilling away. Because the general ability of people in historical languages is actually woeful. It is an open secret that most professors in classics and historical theology cannot, actually, language their way out of a paper bag. And there are clear pedagogical and linguistic reasons for that. Causes that we could change, if we fundamentally altered the way we approach historical language education.

And I guess that’s something I wouldn’t be doing unless I was where I am.

So, you missed the boat on learning Latin actively?

I think (perhaps naively optimistic) that we’re on the cusp of a generational divide in Latin education. And this post is an attempt to help some on the ‘old’ side of that divide, cross over to the ‘young’ side.

What I mean is this: In the last 20 years we’ve seen a strong, consistent, and considerable growth in active approaches to Latin. I can see a few different causes of that. The birth and growth of SALVI in north America, general revitalisation of communicative-based and CI-based language teaching in general, the spread of Lingua Latina per se Illustrata as a textbook from the 90s onwards (even though its origins are much older), and perhaps most critically, the society-wide transforming effect of the Internet.

I learnt Latin, firstly, through correspondence materials from a university, on paper, sent by post. I would never have come to hear about LLPSI or anything active if it were not for the internet. It’s the internet that let me order a copy of LLPSI back in 2007. It’s the internet that let me hear about what Latin teachers were doing to adopt communicative practices. It’s the internet that has enabled me to have live text-chat, and critically, live voice and video chats, in Latin. The internet is the great enabler and diffuser of what would have been a very geographically isolated phenomenon.

And these days I see the effects of the growth of active Latin approaches in younger students. High school students who are able to converse and use Latin as a living language at levels far superior to the painstaking ‘prose composition’ work of the traditionally trained. Granted, many of these younger folk are outliers, but I think the balance is shifting. I live in the hope that there will come a day when people are genuinely (not ironically and sarcastically, as I am) baffled that people learned, or still learn, Latin as an exercise in grammar-translation.

But what if you missed the boat? What if you’re a Latin teacher who’s busy with lesson prep, marking, school regulations, service requirements, association duties, a family, and umpteen other obligations, and you think, “sure, I do see that a more active approach to Latin would be useful, but I just can’t even begin.”

I think that’s a lot of people, to be fair. And I get it – I got through a 4 year college classics sequence as a top level grammar-translator. And it can feel like “learning Latin all over again.”

But it doesn’t have to, and that’s what this post is about: taking small, actionable steps to shift your Latin from “I know grammar and can translate to English” to “I know Latin and can discourse in Latin”

  1. You know a lot more active Latin than you realise


Even though I don’t think knowledge about language and acquisition of language are systems that easily ‘cross-over’, the fact is that all the knowledge up in your head about Latin is a tremendous wealth of data you can call upon, especially when you’re not pressed for time. That, and the considerable amount of Latin you’ve been exposed to, are assets, not detriments. You are not really starting over. It’s more like a cross-grade. So don’t discredit what you already do know.


  1. Go easy on yourself


And, related to this, be kind to yourself. You’ve probably spent most of your Latin life not using Latin actively, and so you are starting something new. Attempts to read Latin without translating, to write Latin, to speak Latin, are all going to be hard at first. And that’s okay. Embrace the suck, because no one is judging you (except yourself, probably)


  1. Start small


Choose small, attainable goals and habits to develop. Just as I would tell students new to Latin to get a copy of LLPSI and start working slowly and consistently through it, the same for old-hands who want to revivify their Latin in a new mode. LLPSI is perfect for this, because it starts so easy, it’s graded so well, you can do everything in it while keeping your brain in Latin, and you can pace yourself through it. Also, you can listen to Scorpio’s beautiful readings. I would tell you to commit to nothing else and nothing more than first working through LLPSI volume 1. After that, you can spread your wings.


  1. If you’re a teacher, learn from teachers

One of my prime motivators for switching my own focus to more communicative modes was the practice of teachers. And while this post isn’t only for teachers, if you are a teacher, know that you can shift your teaching with small steps too. Just introduce one small component of speaking at a time. You don’t have to go from all-grammar to all-communication in a day.

And you can learn from those who’ve gone before. There are plenty of teachers who are actively engaged in communicative teaching, and are willing to help.

Here’s a short list of super useful people doing specifically Latin-y things:


  1. Just start, and keep going


Maybe you’ll never become a fluent, advanced/superior level speaker of Latin. Maybe you will. Who cares? Just make a small start on become a better Latin speaker, and you’ll almost certainly become a better Latin writer, reader, listener along the way. You can have my money-back guarantee on that.

Introducing LGPSI, a guide for the uncertain

LGPSI, also known as Lingua Graeca Per Se Illustrata, and by its Greek name ἡ ἑλληνικὴ γλῶσσα καθ’ αὑτὴν φωτιζομένη, is an expansive writing project aimed at producing a new type of Greek reading text built for learners of ancient Greek.

It takes its name from the famous Lingua Latina per se Illustrata of Hans Ørberg. And, to some extent is designed to be a Greek edition of that, though with important differences.

The project consists of several elements:

The core text: The core text is main material of continuous Greek text which follows, at its centre, the story of a family in Antioch in the 4th century A.D., and those they met along the way. This material is being primarily authored by myself. The chapters are designed to become increasingly more complex in style, vocabulary, and grammar.



How can I get hold of LGPSI?


You can find LGPSI available online at:

This page lets you access the raw source files, and if you’re familiar with github, you can create issues/submit feedback directly:

This page lets you read the text in a html format, or access a script-generated pdf. These two versions are updated slightly less often, so corrections take longer to appear here.


Does it cost anything?

LGPSI is an open-access resource and you can freely access it and put it to use basically however you see fit. No, you don’t need to send me money. Yes, you can if you would like.

There may come a stage where some instantiation of LGPSI costs money (e.g., a print version). But my commitment is that LGPSI should be both open in the sense of ‘free to collaborate and improve’, but also ‘free to use without cost’.

What if I don’t know any Greek?

Unlike LLPSI where it really is possible to open up the first page, provided you know the Roman alphabet, LGPSI is not *quite* so adaptable. For this reason, I have in mind a couple of features. Firstly, chapter 1 follows LLPSI capitulum primum quite closely. If you know the Latin, you should be able to understand how the Greek parallels that. Secondly, what about the alphabet?

What if I don’t know the Greek alphabet?

I have in mind to produce a ‘chapter zero’ resource that should orient total ab initio beginners. In particular, teaching the alphabet through aural/visual repetition of characters, using minimal pairs and working up to words. It should then be possible to reproduce the audio side of this for several different pronunciation schemes/periods?

What kind of Greek does LGPSI teach?

LGPSI at present teaches ‘Koine Greek with Attic sprinkles’. It does this for several reasons. Firstly, the vast bulk of ancient Greek literature is written in Koine. Students who study Koine are well situated to access this material. Secondly, for those whose interest is primarily biblical and related studies, Koine is the idiom of primary interest. Thirdly, a significant portion of Koine writers deliberately and conscientiously employ a high-register of Koine that contains Attic features, for which reason you will find plenty of Attic influence in this text. Fourthly, the historical setting of the main storyline is late antiquity. I believe that students whose main interest is “classical literature” and “classical Greek” will still be well served by this text.

That said, I do have in mind that LGPSI as a broader project of multiple stories may, indeed should, grow to include spin-off texts that may focus on specific authors/dialects/periods. That would include a ‘high Attic’, a Homeric book, a Byzantine one, and other possibilities.

Where are the margin notes and illustrations like LLPSI?

I haven’t done them yet. But they are envisaged. Writing LLPSI was Ørberg’s life work, and LGPSI is a work in progress with zero funding. So what you get to see and use now is very much LGPSI as I’m literally writing it. That has two main consequences: (a) the text is somewhat ‘unstable’ as I will undoubtedly refine and revise it; (b) my primary concern at present is producing the core text.

However, (c) those elements are in my mind. In particular I am keenly interested in how marginal notes/footnotes/images/etc., may be incorporated at a digitally rich level, so that they are dynamically featured, not clued and tied to “chapter X, line 123”.

Also, to have illustrations we will need an illustrator.

I found a mistake

Please tell me. I love and appreciate feedback. I am usually able to incorporate revisions in a very short turn-around. Whether what you’ve spotted is a typo, or a systematic error on my part, I want to hear about it.

I think you could improve X, Y, Z.

Similarly, I am appreciative of broader feedback. I test this material out on students as I can, but the more feedback I have about all sorts of elements, the better we can make this for all.

Do you have any connection to the Cultura Classica LGPSI?

No, I don’t personally. I have some familiarity with Cultura Classica, but only from the outside.

Spin-Off projects

At present, two people have started spin-off projects that dovetail with LGPSI material:

Eric Sowell has a spin-off project ὁ ἑταῖρος

Fletcher Hardison is working on some Grammar (in Greek) and Exercises to accompany the material: see

Contact Details:

You can contact me about LGPSI at

If you want to tweet about LGPSI, #LGPSI is our tag


Ørberg, TQ: Setup, and writing LGPSI

I’ve said it before, and I’ll say it many more times – Ørberg completed a work of genius in composing Lingua Latina per se Illustrata. The more I read it, the more I see how carefully he crafted it, and appreciate the finesse required to construct a book (more than a book) that so effectually teaches Latin, using only (a) latin, or (b) pictures to illustrate things.

That’s not to say that LLPSI is perfect. Indeed, based on the findings of Second Language Acquisition theory in the last 60 years, there are many things that LLPSI doesn’t do and several things that it assumes (incorrectly). For a prime example, LLPSI still operates on the principle, “if I introduce you to all the forms of the passive verb in this chapter, in contexts in which they are obvious, then by the end of this chapter you ‘know’ the forms of the passive verb”.

In sum, LLPSI is not undergirded by sufficient Comprehensible-Input principles.

And yet it’s still the best book by many metric kilometres. And one of those reasons is that it is Per Se Illustrata.

Lately I’ve also been reviewing some of the excellent materials available for Where are your keys, which is an awesome approach to language in general, and being put to amazing use in language revitalisation work by Evan Gardner and his colleagues. It’s also incredibly adaptable to purpose.

Among the vast array of ‘techniques’, is TQ: Setup – setting-up a scenario/situation/location/props in order to isolate and facilitate the elicitation and transmission of a particular ‘piece’ of language. A great example is teaching ‘longer/longest’. Ideally you want to have 3 objects, like sticks, rods, something that’s already long, flat, etc., that are identical apart from length. This is part of isolating the thing you want to get. So then you have minimally contrastive pairs. You might start with 2 of your sticks, to get long-er, then you might try a few variations to try to elicit long-est, and test this out to make sure you’ve got it.

LLPSI is full of set-ups. When it’s time to teach tam… quam…, in chapter 6, Ørberg introduces a set of roads in Italy, and then compares their lengths with (non) tam longus … quam…. This works with mostly already known vocabulary, establishes the tam-quam pairing, and provides more story material for the narrative that’s unfolding. In chapter 12 he returns to teach comparatives, (having in the meantime taught the 3rd declension noun patterns), and because tam…quam… is already established, he can match this with longior, (and brevior, gravior).

This is, admittedly, one of many struggles I find in writing LGPSI – finding the right set-ups. Partly because I do not wish to only repeat LLPSI over and over. It has great set-ups, but I want to tell different stories, with different settings.

And partly, there’s simply a CI-component that I want to exist in LGPSI that doesn’t in LLPSI. You don’t learn the morphology of the past-imperfective just by seeing enough examples, you learn it by seeing enough examples – i.e. exposure over and over and over to various forms.

Which is why one of the ‘solutions’ in LGPSI is just to keep writing. Writing more content, writing ‘forwards’ in terms of content/story/difficulty, but also writing ‘sideways’ – same “level” of material, different content; and even writing ‘backwards’ – revising old “content”, but remixing the language and complexity used to express it.

Thinking about communicating bite-sized-pieces by finding the right Set-Ups though, has been a really useful way of framing the challenges for me. Looking forward to finding more and more Set-Ups that work.

Adventures in Orthography and Transcription

Lately I’ve started copying out by hand the texts of Familia Romana and Italian Athenaze, complete with macrons, and full diacritics (including marking vowel lengths on alpha, iota, upsilon) in Greek.

I was prompted to do so by hearing from a few people how valuable they had found the former activity (both in A Strange Odyssey, and also Lucius Noster has said the same about Familia Romana).

When I tell people this, they consider it rather strange. What on earth is the pedagogic value of copying out whole passages of text? And how does this fit my own pedagogy and understanding of SLA?

My short answer is just: spelling.

But, more than that, the relationship between spelling and accurate pronunciation of Latin and Greek. It’s entirely possible to learn languages without becoming, or even using, literacy skills. However, given that vowel length and accent are features of these languages, they are features that ought to be learnt properly. Now, good oral input will do that – if you regularly hear Latin words with correct vowel length and appropriate stress, then you’ll be fine. But, even though I often have a good intuition for this in Latin, and less so but to some extent in Greek, I am often unsure when writing.

Hence the writing project – by considering diacritical marks not ‘optional’ but essential to my learning as a second-language-learner, I am compelling myself to learn these features in my literacy. Which will improve my writing ability. And spill over, to some extent, to my speaking ability.

So, we’ll see. It’s an experiment, to become a more self-conscious writer of ancient languages, and thus a more accurate speaker.